MaraisDesCygnes.jpg

The Marais des Cygnes massacre was the bloodiest incident of the Kansas-Missouri border struggles. Eleven Free State men were shot here by Proslavery Missourians in 1858. Five were killed. Weeks later, John Brown built a fort on the site. He made a raid into Missouri, freeing eleven slaves and killing one slaveowner. Of the retaliation, he said, "Hell is stirred from beneath."